Fittings seal fluid within the hydraulic system by one of two techniques: all-metal fittings rely on metal-to-metal contact, while O-ring type fittings contain pressurized fluid by compressing an elastomeric seal. In either case, tightening threads between mating halves of the fitting forces two mating surfaces together to form a high-pressure seal.
Fittings for tubing larger than 1-in. OD have to be tightened with large hexnuts which, in turn, require larger wrenches to enable workers to apply sufficient torque to tighten the fittings properly. To install such large fittings, system designers must provide the necessary space to give workers enough room to swing large wrenches.